Turkeys are disease-prone poultry susceptible to infection. Infectious and non-infectious pathologies affecting the turkey livestock, cause enormous damage to the poultry industry, make the meat unsuitable for sale. Treatment of turkey diseases should be carried out in a timely manner, the infection should be detected at the initial stages, in difficult cases, seek veterinary help in order to prevent a significant reduction in the population.
Non-communicable diseases occur when a farmer does not follow the rules of hygiene, does not take good care of birds, or provides poor-quality feed.
The disease is easily treatable. The reasons for the stretching and sagging goiter are unbalanced nutrition, excess water intake, finding birds in hot weather in direct sunlight or in an unventilated room. Treatment involves a diet prescribed by your veterinarian. Sick turkeys are kept in silence and solitude, their physical activity and contact with other birds are minimized.
More complex than the previous one, the disease. The goiter hardens when it becomes clogged with debris and husks of plant food. Surgery is required, but for many farmers it is not profitable, it is easier to slaughter sick birds.
Lack of vitamins is the result of poor quality feeding. Hypovitaminosis in turkeys manifests itself, as in chickens, dermatitis, visual impairment, thinning and deformation of the skeleton, inflammation of the mucous tissues. Treatment involves a balanced diet. Sick turkeys are transferred to feed with compound feeds containing a complete list of substances necessary for birds of a particular age category.
Most often, turkeys injure their legs, this is manifested by an incorrect gait, eversion of the paws, and curvature of the bones. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cause of the injury.
- calcium deficiency and hypovitaminosis;
- closely related crossing;
- pathology of the skeleton and bone tissue;
- crowded content, due to which pets step on each other.
If a turkey has a fracture, then the limb is fixed with a splint, a plaster cast is applied.
The reason is the lack of vitamins and minerals in the feed. The disease is often observed in heavy broiler breeds that require a lot of high-quality feed, for example, in Big-6 English turkeys. To replenish deficient substances, pets begin to eat inedible objects: pebbles, sawdust, sand, straw. To eliminate the oddities in the diet, the farmer must revise the diet of the birds, enrich it with vitamins and minerals.
To correctly determine the cause of paw problems, the farmer should observe the turkeys:
- underdevelopment of the skeleton due to lack of calcium is manifested by an unstable gait and weakness of the legs;
- with crowded content of turkey poults fall, break and twist limbs;
- an unstable, staggering gait - a sign of lack of nutrition (if the bird looks normal and behaves actively) or an infectious lesion (if the turkey is lethargic, inactive);
- deformed and swollen joints indicate arthritis.
In the diet, the amount of feed rich in vitamins D and B group is increased, the amount of fatty foods is reduced. Arthritis is treated with a solution of mummy - 0.4 mg per 100 g of body weight, given to drink for 10 days, regularly rubbed into the inflamed limbs for 5 minutes.
Infectious diseases of turkeys
The infection is dangerous by its rapid spread, the ability to kill all livestock in a short time. Turkeys are susceptible to bacterial, fungal, viral diseases. At the first signs of infection, the sick individual is removed from the healthy ones, and they are immediately taken for treatment.
The incubation period of a viral disease lasts 2-3 weeks. The infection enters the bird's body through the respiratory tract, contaminated feed, open skin injuries. Sick birds are lethargic, their skin is covered with a small rash.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
Prevention - vaccination of 6-week-old chicks. The vaccine protects against smallpox virus for six months.
Sick birds are separated from the livestock, their diet is enriched with vitamin supplements to strengthen immunity. The poultry house and equipment are disinfected. A remedy for treating affected skin is glycerin and an alcohol solution of iodine in equal proportions. The eyes are washed with 2% boric acid.
The viral disease affects the nervous system of turkeys. The limbs are paralyzed, the neck twists unnaturally. The bird falls to the ground, defecates gray or greenish-gray smelly diarrhea. Sick birds are killed.
Helminths enter the body of birds through drinking, food, feces, bedding, soil. The parasites are carried by insects, with which turkeys can come into contact. There are no clear symptoms of helminthiasis; a laboratory study is required to clarify the diagnosis. Sick turkeys in most cases:
- lethargic, apathetic;
- lose weight dramatically;
- grow slowly;
- drink a lot of water;
- defecate with green diarrhea;
- lose the feather cover at the anus;
- give eggs with a thin, deformed, lumpy shell.
Helminthiasis is treated with Fenbendazole. The medicine is added to food during morning feeding (7.5 mg per 1 kg of body weight). Birds can be slaughtered after half a month after the completion of treatment. Prevention of helminthiasis in turkeys - disinfection of the poultry house, regular cleaning of the walking area, cleaning of bird droppings.
Bacterial disease occurs when poor-quality feeding and poor conditions of keeping turkeys.
Avian TB symptoms:
- apathy, lethargy;
- poor appetite;
- weakness of the legs;
- sedentary state;
- nodular skin rash.
Sick turkeys are slaughtered.
The bacterial disease, accompanied by inflammation of the synovial surfaces of the joints, affects both adult turkeys and chicks from 7 weeks of age.
Symptoms of the disease are pronounced:
- sedentary state;
- slowness of movements;
- pallor of the skin;
- increased body temperature;
- joints that are unnaturally soft to the touch.
For treatment, antibiotics "Streptomycin", "Biomycin" are used. A robust, well-fed bird can recover without medication.
Turkeys are affected by mycoplasmas when kept crowded and unbalanced diet.
- discharge from the eyes and nasal passages;
- Inflammation of the infraorbital sinuses;
- inflammatory process in the tissues of the beak;
- weakening of vision;
- difficulty breathing;
- weakness of the legs;
- weight loss.
Treat turkeys with antimicrobial drugs. Very weak birds are killed.
Coccidia enter the body of turkeys through food, drink, in close contact with an infected individual.
Symptoms of the disease:
- depressed and lethargic state;
- dented type of plumage;
- bloody diarrhea;
- lack of appetite;
- drooping of the wings.
Treatment must be started immediately, the mortality of young individuals reaches 30%.
- "Koktsidiovit" (2.5 g per 1 kg of food, taken within a week);
- "Aviax" 5% (1 g per 1 kg of food, for 5 days);
- "Avatek" 15% (1 g per 1 kg of food, within 5 days).
Diseases of a young individual
Young turkeys have a fragile body, so they tolerate diseases more difficult than mature birds. Infectious pathologies that threaten the death of the entire livestock are especially dangerous for young animals.
The bacterial infection affects the upper respiratory tract. The pathogen spreads with sick individuals, through eggs prepared for breeding, through dirty equipment and shoes of farm workers.
- apathetic, emaciated state;
- nasal discharge;
- swelling of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity;
- hoarse sounds;
- hard breath.
Antibiotics are used for treatment:
- "Streptomycin" (injection of 0.1 g per 1 kg of body weight);
- "Biomycin" (5 mg per food per 1 kg of body weight, taken within a week);
- "Terramycin" (2 mg in feed per 1 kg of body weight, 2 times a day for 5 days).
Salmonella enters the body of turkeys through food, equipment, dirt on the territory of the poultry house, with birds and rodent vectors. Mostly young 2-6-week-old turkeys get sick.
Symptoms of an acute illness:
- lethargic, sedentary state;
- ruffled plumage;
- drooping of the wings;
- lacrimation, sticking of the eyelids with pus;
- falling birds upside down;
- green diarrhea.
Either the turkey dies after 2-4 days, or the disease turns into a subacute form, manifested by inflammation of the joints and respiratory organs, taking the life of up to 50% of the young livestock. In surviving individuals, after 10 days, the pathology takes on a chronic form, accompanied by paralysis of the legs.
Sick turkeys are given immunostimulants, paratyphoid serum (2.5 ml per 1 kg of body weight) is injected intramuscularly. The antibiotic "Biomycin" (5 mg per 1 kg of body weight) is added to food for 5 days 2 times a day. As a drink for 5 days give "Furacilin" (solution in a ratio of 1: 5000 to water).
Upper respiratory tract disease spreads rapidly, affecting birds up to 3 months of age. Symptoms are pronounced:
- inflammatory processes in the tissues of the beak, pharynx, organs of vision with liquid secretions;
- swelling of the head tissue;
- lack of appetite;
- hoarse voice;
- hard breath.
Sick turkeys are killed. The rest are treated with iodine monochloride for prophylactic purposes.
The infection rapidly destroys young individuals. Birds squeak pitifully, breathe heavily, they have white, unpleasant-smelling, frothy diarrhea. The infection spreads through the body with blood, kills the digestive tract and respiratory system. At home, turkeys become infected through food, drink, equipment, from sick relatives. Sick chicks hatch from infected eggs.
The younger the infected individuals, the more severe the disease progresses. In young chicks, the mortality rate reaches 70%.
For treatment, the veterinarian will prescribe an antibiotic. It is better to kill completely exhausted birds.
The infection affects the tissues of the liver and the blind intestine. Sick turkeys are apathetic, disheveled, refuse food, defecate red, smelly diarrhea, gradually turning brown. Turkeys are treated with the drugs "Furazolidone" (0.04% per portion of feed per day, intake for 2 weeks, after a 2-week pause, repeat the course) and "Osarsol" (15 mg in feed per 1 kg of body weight, intake for 5 days).
Diseases of small turkey poults
Small turkeys are susceptible to disease. From the first days of life, with illiterate care, they can become seriously ill.
At a young age, turkey poults are actively growing, their body requires a sufficient amount of nutrients. With a protein, vitamin or mineral deficiency, the chicks are brutally pecked at each other. First, pluck out the feathers, then pierce the skin, peck out the insides. But turkey poults are sick with cannibalism not only because of poor nutrition, but also because of:
- open wounds and ulcers in the anal area in case of digestive disorders;
- excessive lighting;
- planting new individuals;
- crowded content;
- joint keeping of birds of different ages (the older ones attack the younger ones);
- too dry air in the house (the plumage dries up, they begin to pluck it);
- parasitic diseases (turkeys peck out the affected itchy areas of the body).
Adult turkeys can peck eggs when they are deficient in protein, calcium or sulfur.
To prevent cannibalism, you must:
- keep turkeys of different ages separately;
- regulate the level of illumination;
- do not allow thickened livestock content;
- to give compound feeds corresponding to the age and production category of turkeys;
- regularly disinfect the house.
The symptoms of a lack of different vitamins in chicks are manifested differently:
- With a lack of retinol (A) in turkey poults, vision deteriorates, the eyeballs become cloudy, lacrimation occurs, and body weight is poorly gained.
- With a deficiency of group B, the limbs are paralyzed. Feathers fall out, dermatological pathologies occur.
- With a lack of calciferol (D), chicks grow poorly. Due to the softening and fragility of bone tissue, the risk of damage to the skeleton increases.
The most susceptible to rickets are turkey poults and broiler chickens, which need a lot of proteins and minerals. But with poor-quality nutrition, the disease is also observed in chicks of egg breeds. The main reason is calcium deficiency. But to restore the body, it is not enough just to use a mineral supplement. It is necessary to ensure a sufficient supply of vitamin D, without which the mineral cannot be absorbed. Also, you should not allow an excess of phosphorus, which promotes the leaching of calcium from the bones. In order for vitamin D to be absorbed normally, turkeys must move, walk for a long time in the fresh air.
The causes of enteritis are poor-quality or spoiled food, lack of vitamins. Usually the disease occurs in chicks up to 3 months old. Due to inflammation of the intestinal walls, it is painful for turkeys to feed, they lose their appetite, and weaken. Defecate with diarrhea with undigested food. Feces covered in feathers around the anus. Sick chicks should be treated separately from healthy livestock. They are placed in a quiet and peaceful place, and given quality food and clean drinking.
Subject to the rules of care and maintenance, high-quality feeding, and maintaining the immunity of turkeys, the likelihood of diseases is significantly reduced. In order for the birds to remain healthy, it is important to carry out preventive measures in a timely manner, not to let animals and strangers into the house, to disinfect, and clean the equipment.