Description and characteristics of the Diaber cherry variety, planting and care

Description and characteristics of the Diaber cherry variety, planting and care

The Daiber cherry variety has been known to gardeners for over a hundred years. The old species of the Rosaceae family is well studied and tested in practice. Despite the emergence of new berry crops, it retained its competitiveness in terms of yield and quality of fruits. The varietal type is bigarro, which means the table properties of the fruit (eaten raw and processed). Nutritional value lies in the high content of nutrients and excellent taste.

How the variety is bred

The variety was obtained without the participation of gardeners, in the second half of the 19th century, in the Crimea. The cherry got its name from the name of the gardener who discovered and described the unknown variety. The official name is Dyber A. Chernaya. Amateur gardeners know her as Dyber or Crimean cherry.

Description

If agrotechnical conditions are observed, the tree gives consistently high yields.

The culture is zoned in the Krasnodar Territory, Volgograd, Astrakhan regions. Cultivation in the northern regions causes freezing of fruit buds, flowers and ovaries, which reduces the fruiting of Dybera.

General description

Dayber cherry is a mid-season, large-fruited, dessert variety. Has increased requirements - to light, soil, moderate - to heat and moisture. When shaded, the plant does not take root on clay soils. In cold, rainy springs, it is exposed to viral infection of leaves and fruits.

The tree is powerful, tall, with a rounded, well-leafy, semi-spreading crown. The first fruits of Dyber give at the age of 5 years. For the formation of ovaries, it needs cross-pollination.

Dignity

The positive quality of the Daibera variety is its amicable, stable ripening. The berries are juicy, have a pleasant, sweet and sour taste, are rich in vitamins, are well stored and transported.

High quality cherries are obtained:

  • juice;
  • mashed potatoes;
  • compote.

Wine and jam are prepared by adding cherries and plums for acidity and aroma. A flowering tree serves as a decoration for the backyard landscape. When grown in regions with appropriate climates and soils, Dyber requires minimal maintenance.

Disadvantages

Dyber cherry without pollinator remains sterile, without forming ovaries. Wood, leaves, fruits are susceptible to pathogenic infection. At temperatures up to -24 degrees, flower buds die. Frost at 30 degrees causes the bark to die off: the trunk, branches and shoots freeze. During the ripening period, both drought and heavy rainfall negatively affect the quantity and quality of the crop.

Bud

Fruiting is concentrated on bouquet branches, at the ends of which flowers are collected and a growth bud is formed. The flower buds are rounded, the growth bud is located in the center of the inflorescences. After the fruit ripens, the flower buds die, and a shoot with 5 internodes and 6 buds is formed from the growth.

Leaf and flower

The crown of Dybera has good foliage. The leaf is dark green, large, elongated, with a pointed end. The width of the sheet plate is 8 centimeters, the length is 15 centimeters. The petiole is long.

The tree produces bisexual white flowers before the leaves appear. One inflorescence contains 2 buds. The blossoming flower is a rosette of 5 corrugated petals, pistil and stamens. The period from the appearance of buds to the fall of the petals is 2-3 weeks.

Fetus

Dyber's cherry fruits are large, rounded, wider at the stalk.

Weight

The berry, on average, weighs up to 6-7 grams.

Height

The height of the fruit is 2.5-2.7 centimeters.

Width

The berry is 2.1 centimeters wide.

Thickness

The diameter of the fruit is 1.9 centimeters at the stalk.

Color

The color of the berries is burgundy, with a black tint.

Peduncle

The stalk is thick, firmly attached to the berry. Length - 4-5 centimeters.

Bone

The stone is easily separated from the pulp, round, small.

General characteristics

Dibera berries are large, dark red, easily separated from the stalk. The pulp is dense, juicy, red in color, well freed from the stone.

Taste qualities

The nutritional advantages of the Daiber variety are determined by:

  • high sugar content (15-18%);
  • the presence of acids (citric, malic, tartaric, lactic, salicylic);
  • fiber;
  • pectin.

The use of cherries has a beneficial effect on the body in case of diseases:

  • nervous;
  • cardiovascular;
  • digestive;
  • hematopoietic;
  • musculoskeletal system.

Fruits of pleasant, sweet-sour taste, with juicy pulp, well quench thirst and hunger.

Content of nutrients

The stimulating effect on metabolic processes is explained by the high content of vitamins, macro- and microelements in Dibera fruits:

  1. A, B, C, P, E.
  2. K, Ca, Mg, Zn, S, Cu.

The leading position among vitamins and minerals is (in 100 grams of cherries):

  • ascorbic acid (C) - 15 milligrams;
  • tocopherol (E) - 1 milligram;
  • potassium - 256 milligrams;
  • calcium - 37 milligrams;
  • magnesium - 30 milligrams.

It is enough to have 400 grams of Diber cherries daily in the diet to normalize health.

Tree height and growth rate

Crown height - up to 6 meters. The trunk diameter is 40-50 centimeters. Under favorable conditions, the annual growth of the stem reaches 50-60 centimeters.

Flowering and ripening period

Sweet cherry blossoms at a stable temperature of +15, +20 degrees, in April, early May. Mass ripening of Dibera fruits occurs at the end of June, beginning of July.

Yield

An adult tree, under favorable weather conditions and proper agricultural technology, gives up to 90 kilograms of berries per season. The maximum recorded harvest is 170 kilograms. Dybera's yield in Crimea reaches 160 kilograms.

Transportability

The dense skin and moderate juiciness of the dense pulp of the Diaber cherry allow you to transport and store the berries for 3 days after removal. Transportation at a temperature of about 0 degrees keeps the fruit fresh for 20 days.

Drought tolerance

Deep roots provide Dyber with sufficient moisture. The close occurrence of groundwater leads to rotting of the roots and gum leakage. With low rainfall in May, early June, the plant requires abundant watering. Otherwise, the tree drops the ovaries, the fruits do not gain the required mass and size.

In dry autumn, after the foliage has been dropped, cherries also require pre-winter watering to protect the root system from freezing.

Frost resistance

Sweet cherries planted in the northern regions die when the temperature drops once to -30 degrees. Prolonged cold weather leads to freezing of the roots in the upper soil layer and the death of the plant.

Cold winters and long springs reduce yields, since some of the flower buds die off at -24 degrees. For ovaries, frost in the air up to -0.5 degrees is fatal, for flowers - up to -2 degrees.

Disease resistance

Dyber trees have reduced immunity against viral and fungal infection.

The main diseases are perforated and brown leaf spot, scab, coccomycosis and moniliosis. Moniliosis manifests itself in the form of fruit rot and monilial burn. Cool, rainy weather, fog at the beginning of the growing season increase the risk of infection by several times.

Fruit application

Dyber berries are used fresh, for the preparation of summer compotes and preservation in the form of juice, puree, compote.

Basic soil requirements

The roots of the tree go down to a depth of 2 meters. The close occurrence of groundwater will harm the Dybera root system. On a loose, humus-rich soil, cherries retain fruiting for decades.

Landing features

Agrotechnical requirements for planting Dyber take into account its varietal characteristics. Compliance with the conditions is necessary for the further growth of the seedling and fruiting.

Sapling selection

The tree should have a dense, elastic, uniformly colored bark without damage. Autumn planting material is of higher quality than purchased in spring.

Root system

The roots should not have broken ends, signs of rot.

Trunk

The height of the seedling can vary from 70 centimeters to 1 meter (depending on age).

Age

Trees take root well from 1 to 2 years.

Vaccination

The place of the rootstock should be inconspicuous, dry, without damage.

Planting timing

Planting time (spring or fall) depends on the region. Autumn planting is favorable if the weather is warm in October, there is no sharp drop in temperature in the winter months, which corresponds to the southern regions of Russia. In other cases, the best period for planting Diber cherries is spring.

Site selection

The place where Dyber will grow should be sunny, protected from cold winds, and even. Clayy, stony soil is prepared for planting in the fall: an area of ​​at least 1 square meter is dug up to a depth of half a meter.

Pit preparation

On heavy soils and sandy soils, the pit is prepared in the fall. When planting several cherry seedlings, deep plowing is carried out.

Manure, ash, lime are added to the soil at the rate of 1 square meter:

  • 2 buckets of rotted mullein;
  • 0.5 liters of wood ash;
  • 0.5 kilograms of slaked lime (with an acidic reaction).

Clay, humus, ash are added to sandstone. The size of the landing pit: diameter - 80 and depth - 60 centimeters.

In the spring, a deepening is dug a few days before planting the seedling so that the earth settles and warms up.

A prepared soil mixture is poured at the bottom from:

  • rotted manure (2 buckets);
  • potassium sulfate (100 grams) or wood ash (2 cups);
  • superphosphate (400 grams);
  • garden land (half a bucket).

Top up is made to isolate the cherry roots from mineral fertilizers and not cause burns.

Landing

The roots of the seedling are soaked in water for a day. Then they are dipped in a mash made of slurry, clay, and water. A tubercle is formed in the landing pit. A peg is fixed in the center, 50 centimeters above the soil boundary. The Dyber tree is installed vertically on the tubercle, straightening the roots.

Sprinkle with soil, tamp, so that the root collar rises above the ground by 1-2 centimeters. The stem is attached to the peg with a bandage made of natural materials. For irrigation, use settled, not cold water. 2 buckets of water are poured into the trunk circle and mulched with dry peat.

Garden laying

It is necessary to plant Diber cherry seedlings taking into account its biological exclusivity: powerful branching, rapid growth. The gap in the rows is determined from 3 meters, in the aisles - from 5 meters. To avoid shading, trees are staggered, alternating with other varieties for pollination. You can plant one variety of cherries, or several, as well as cherries.

What can and cannot be planted next to

When laying a garden, the location of other plants is provided. Antagonists will slow down the growth of cherries, restrain fruiting.

The crowns of other trees should not exceed and shade Dyberu, and their root systems should be competitors.

Can

Planting stone fruits next to the Dyber cherry does not interfere with its development when properly planted. The proximity of cherries and sweet cherries will increase the yield of both crops due to over-pollination. The proximity of the plum with Dybera will help protect against pests.

Grapes

The vine forms a root in the topsoil. It tolerates well the neighborhood with fruit trees. Grapes are harmful to fruit plantations if their shoots twine around the crown.

Hawthorn

A tree-like bush or tree blooms in the same period as Dyber, attracting pollinating insects with its fragrant flowers. The plant is unpretentious to care for.

Rowan

A plant that does not require special care. During flowering, it attracts bees, which contributes to the pollination of cherries. In the autumn - birds.

Elderberry (protection against aphids)

Elder, shrub or tree (red and black) up to 3 meters high. From May to mid-June, its flowers are a repellent for aphids that attack cherries during this period.

Honeysuckle

The height of garden varieties does not exceed 1 meter. The plant grows well and bears fruit at a distance of 2 meters from Dybera, without interfering with the tree.

It is impossible

Do not plant next to sweet cherry crops that are carriers of dangerous diseases or shade its crown.

Nightshade crops

All types of nightshade are not recommended to be planted near cherries. Tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, peppers are prone to verticillary wilting, which affects all types of plants, including cherries. Infection occurs through the soil. The fungus penetrates through the root system into the lower part of the trunk and causes the death of the cambium (the cells that support the growth of the tree).

Trees

Planting forest trees on your backyard next to fruit plants will have a negative impact over time. An apple tree, a pear, an apricot are planted no closer than 10 meters from the Dyber cherry in order to avoid oppression.

Linden

The tree grows up to 10-30 meters, has a dense crown that is not permeable to sunlight, and a developed root system. When planted next to a sweet cherry, it will shade it, dramatically dry out the soil.

Oak

Oak in height, crown and root system surpasses the Dyber cherry when it reaches 5-7 years. The rivalry will not be in favor of the fruit tree. The number of May beetles on the site will increase significantly.

Birch tree

Birch shades the area, dries the soil, and attracts May beetles.

Maple

Maple is one of the beetles' favorite trees.

Some fruit bushes

Close planting of most fruit bushes next to cherries is harmful to plants. Some compete for nutrients in the soil, others are incompatible in terms of agronomic conditions.

Raspberries

Raspberry roots are located at a depth of up to half a meter, forming numerous shoots during the growing season. Berry bushes will compete with cherries for nutrients in the soil, intertwine with its roots, which will make it difficult to remove the shoots. The same pests are dangerous for raspberries and cherries, which will increase the risk of infection.

Gooseberry

Thorny shoots have a root reaching 1.5-2 meters. When planted close, the shrub will compete for nutrients with Dybera. Gooseberry agrotechnology does not coincide with the care of cherries, which requires abundant watering, a wind-blown area.

Sea buckthorn

The shrub has a branched, powerful root system at a depth of 40-50 centimeters, 2-2.5 times the diameter of the crown. When planted close, cherries will lack nutrients.

Currant

The currant has numerous root shoots in the upper layers of the soil, requires frequent moisture, which is incompatible with the care of cherries. In the shade, without air movement, it is affected by fungi and viruses that are transmitted to neighboring plants.

Pollinators

For cross-pollination, Dibers plant cherries in the same row with fruits of similar quality.

Black Eagle

Western European variety. Berries up to 3 grams, red. The pulp is tender, juicy, sweet, slightly sour. Trees are frost-resistant, average resistance to pests.

Gold

The maximum height of a cherry is 4 meters. Blooms in April. Lemon-colored fruits, up to 7 grams, sweet and sour. The variety is resistant to winter cold and pests.

Early cassini

Tall tree with a round crown. The beginning of ripening is the end of May. Fruits are brown-burgundy, up to 5 grams, sweet and sour. The variety is susceptible to frost and pest damage.

Bigarro Gaucher

The sweet cherry is mid-season, high-yielding. Berries - up to 4 grams, dark red, with dense juicy sweet pulp. The juice is ruby ​​red. Trees are resistant to adverse climatic conditions.

Gedelfinger

An old high-yielding variety.The trees are tall. Fruits - 6 grams, black when ripe. The pulp is firm, red, sweet. The juice is red. Low frost resistance.

Ramon Oliva

Sweet cherries originated in France. In terms of ripening - early maturing. The variety is winter-hardy, resistant to pests. Fruits are dark red, weighing 5-6 grams, with delicate, sweet pink pulp.

Zhabule

French early maturing, dessert variety. Resistant to pests and low winter temperatures. Berries are medium in size with a loose flesh of dark red color, sweet in taste.

Francis

Western European variety of sweet cherry. The fruits are large - up to 6 grams, with a creamy, dense pulp, sweet, with a slight sourness. The bone is semi-lagging. Resistant to pests. Winter-hardy.

Care secrets

Agrotechnical requirements include maintaining in equilibrium:

  • cherry crown;
  • humidity level;
  • content of nutrients in the soil.

Weeding and loosening are required.

Watering

In dry summers, young cherries need to be watered once a week. Daibere, over 10 years old, enough 3-time abundant watering per season.

Top dressing

In the fall, after the foliage has fallen, nitrogen fertilizers and humus are applied during digging. In the spring, when all the flowers bloom, cherries need potassium and phosphorus additives in the form of ash, superphosphate. Top dressing is done around the circumference of the trunk circle.

Trimming scheme

Dyber's cherry crown is formed in 2 tiers: 9 skeletal branches of the first and 3 - of the second level. The center conductor is cut into a lateral branch at a height of 3.5 meters. In the spring, branches growing inside the crown, tops, competitors above the conductor are removed.

Preparing for winter

Autumn watering, whitewashing of boles, shelter with spruce branches will protect the roots and trunk of the Dyber from freezing. From rodents, cherries will be protected by roofing material, mesh, branches of spruce branches.

Prevention of diseases and pests

Dyber is affected by viruses and fungi, especially during rainy periods. Prevention of the virus consists in the destruction of spores on the trunk and branches of the tree before the beginning of the growing season. Fungi hibernate on affected cherry branches, fallen mummified fruits, leaves.

Lowering the temperature during the flowering period weakens the cherry's immunity and promotes infection.

Hole spot

To prevent the outbreak of a viral infection, in early spring, before the Dybera's kidneys open, she is sprayed with a 5% solution of copper sulfate. Signs of the disease appear as brown blotches on the leaves.

Brown spot

On the leaf plates of the cherry, rounded spots with necrosis along the edges and black dots in the center are noticeable. As a preventive measure, spraying the tree with a 5% solution of copper sulfate is used before the start of sap flow.

Fruit rot

  1. Removal and incineration of spore carriers:
  • half-dried berries;
  • branches;
  • leaves;
  • shoots with darkened bark.
  1. Spraying the tree with a fungicide.

At the end of fruiting, no fruit should remain on the cherry. Dried branches are removed in the spring.

Comedotherapy

The release of resin creates a breeding ground for bacterial infection in the trunk of the Dibera. Dried outgrowths are removed to healthy tissue, treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and covered with garden varnish.

Scab

Prevention of scab damage to cherries is:

  • in harvesting and burning fallen leaves and fruits in autumn;
  • digging near-trunk circles in the fall;
  • spraying with Nitrafen before bud break;
  • 1% Bordeaux liquid when budding;
  • repeated - 20 days after the end of flowering;
  • after harvest.

With a high degree of infestation, Dibers carry out 4 sprays after 2 weeks.

Monilial burn

The sudden drying of the leaves, ovaries and young twigs of Dibera is caused by the fungus ascomycete, which appears after a sharp cold snap with the wind. The tree is sprayed with fungicides at intervals of 7 days.

Cherry slimy sawfly

Destruction of larvae eating cherry leaves using insecticidal preparations: Decis, Karate.

Cherry fly

Processing of Dyber cherries after the formation of ovaries with Decis, with repeated spraying after 2 weeks.

Ringed silkworm

For prophylactic purposes - early spring spraying of Dyber Karate, Zalon.

Cherry aphid

Treatment of Dybera with insecticides from aphids when insects appear.

Weevil

To combat the larvae, the tree is sprayed with Astellik after the petals fall off.

Moth

Prevention consists in the destruction of the pupae before the butterflies emerge from them. For this purpose, in the spring, cherries are examined, spider nests in the bark are removed, and they are sprayed with pyrethroid insecticides.

Frost protection

With the appearance of a snow cover, it is additionally worth insulating the Dybera trunk circle with a compacted snowdrift.

Spring processing

Before the start of sap flow in cherries, sanitary pruning of dry and damaged branches into a ring is carried out, whitewashing of trunks to protect against pests and spring frost breaks.

Harvesting and storage

The berries are removed along with the stalks. So that the fruits are not squeezed by their own weight, they are placed in wide, flat containers. The best place to store cherries is in the fruit compartment in the refrigerator. At a lower temperature, the cherry will turn brown. The term for eating is 3 days. By this time, vitamin C will reach its maximum value in the berry.

Testimonials

Margarita, Rostov:

“Great variety. Cherry is more than 8 years old. Every year pleases with the harvest. Enough for both food and preservation. A cherry tree grows 5 meters away. There are no problems with pollination. "

Vasily, Voronezh:

“I planted a Dybera cherry sapling a year ago. There was no big increase, the dry summer affected. I hope that in three or four years there will be the first harvest. "

Svetlana, Taganrog:

“I love when the Dyber cherry blossoms. There are no leaves yet, it is all in bloom, as in white foam. For this alone it is necessary to plant cherries. "


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