The early winter apple variety Vishneva was obtained by crossing Antonovka ordinary and Pepin Shafranny. Brought to VNIIS them. Michurin, the originators of the variety are the breeders Z.I. Ivanova, V.K.Zaets, S. Isaev and G.A. Lobanov. Vishnevoe apple-tree is suitable for cultivation in the southern regions of Central Russia - Tambov, Kursk, Lipetsk, Voronezh regions.
Apple-tree Vishnevoe is a high-yielding variety of medium winter hardiness. Weakly prone to freezing in a temperate continental climate with a relatively mild, snowy winter (negative temperatures fluctuate at the level of -8 ... -11 -С). It can withstand frosts down to -27 ˚С.
The cherry apple tree belongs to the medium-sized species, growing up to 2-3 meters in height, the roots lie at a depth of 50-60 cm.
Crown and branches
The tree has a rounded, medium-leafed crown with a diameter of 1.5-2 m. The branches grow almost horizontally in relation to the ground, are compactly located.
The stem, branches and shoots of the apple tree are covered with a nasty, dense bark of an intense dark cherry tone.
Leaves are smooth, oval, slightly pubescent on the back, have a fine serration at the edges. Petioles are of medium length, fleecy, colored at the base, growing on shoots at an acute angle.
Vishnevoe tree gives straight shoots of medium length and thickness, with shortened internodes and characteristic cherry color, covered with many small lentils.
Medium-sized buds form at the end of annual fruit twigs and spears. They are afraid of recurrent spring frosts.
Cherry apple flowers are of medium size, form inflorescences of 4 pieces. White or cream-colored oval petals, stigmas of pistils and stamens are at the same height.
Cherry apples have a regular round or slightly conical shape and a thin skin. The fruits are large, grow up to 110-140 grams, are yellow-green at the stage of technical ripeness. Upon reaching full maturity, they gradually acquire a raspberry-red hue. The pulp has a dense structure, sweet, juicy, with a slight sourness and weak aroma.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The Vishnevoe apple variety is distinguished by good yield and consumer properties of the fruit. The following characteristics are important:
- regularity of fruiting;
- bright appearance of fruit;
- fruits are hardy in transportation, have good keeping quality.
The disadvantages of the variety include low immunity to frost, drought, and diseases.
Medium-sized apple species are grown by grafting a cuttings onto a stock of moderate growth. The compactness of the tree allows you to grow it in small areas, without difficulty in harvesting.
Columnar apple trees have become very popular. A low tree, strewn with fruits, looks impressive, does not take up much space. It is characterized by a thicker trunk, low height, fewer lateral branches growing along the trunk. The stem and branches of the apple tree are densely covered with annual short shoots, on which fruits are formed. The compact crown of such a column is easier to shelter from frost in winter. A tree of the Cherry variety bears fruit from the 2-3rd year.
Early winter apple-tree Cherry
A medium-sized apple tree is a delicate plant that needs careful care and feeding. The superficial location of the root system allows planting a tree with a relatively shallow groundwater table. In order to prevent the tree from falling during strong winds or softening the soil during rains, it should be tied to special supports. Fruiting of an apple tree begins from the 5th year.
Characteristics of the Vishnevoe variety
When all agrotechnical measures are performed, the Vishnevoe apple tree lives on average for 10-15 years, after which the planting should be updated. Compared to tall varieties, it tolerates cold better, is more resistant to diseases, its fruits are larger and sweeter.
The Vishnevoe variety is self-fertile and requires pollinating plants. Suitable for this purpose:
- Pepin Saffron.
- North Sinap.
- Antonovka is ordinary.
The development of annual shoots depends on care - watering, fertilizing and competent pruning. On average, new branches grow up to 15 cm.
The collection of Vishnevoe fruits begins in September at the stage of removable ripeness. They reach full maturity in 2 weeks. The fruits are stored for 5 months without loss of marketability.
The apple tree bears fruit annually and abundantly. From one plant, including an adult, you can get up to 150 kg of a crop with proper care.
The Vishnevoe variety is characterized by medium frost resistance, not suitable for growing in regions with severe winters. Young shoots and buds are most susceptible to freezing, which inevitably affects the yield. Flowers are afraid of recurrent frosts. The plant recovers well after cold damage.
Disease and pest resistance
Apple trees of the Vishnevoe variety have good resistance to scab, against other diseases - cytosporosis, fruit rot and pests, appropriate measures must be taken.
Apple Cherry - description
Large fruits are located on a short, thick stalk. The funnel of medium depth is devoid of the "rusty" plaque characteristic of many varieties. The saucer is small, with a closed, non-falling cup. The seed box contains large, half-open chambers. Seeds are small, dark cherry color.
Taste and aroma of apples
Cherry apple fruits have a white, crispy, juicy pulp with a delicate dessert taste and a harmonious combination of sugars and acids. The aroma is weak.
Apples have a positive effect on human health. The presence of antioxidants gives them the ability to rejuvenate the body, inhibit the aging process of cells. Regular consumption of apples has a tonic effect:
- improves the functioning of the immune and cardiovascular systems;
- leads to a decrease in cholesterol levels;
- helps to eliminate toxic substances and slow down the development of cancer cells;
- normalizes the digestive system.
Nutrient content of an apple
The fruit is low in calories (48 kcal), while it has a high nutritional value:
mg / 100 g
mg / 100 g
The benefits and harms of eating fruits
One fresh apple covers the body's daily need for vitamins and minerals by 20%. It is better to eat them together with the peel, which contains a lot of fiber. The fruit is hypoallergenic, it can be safely introduced into the children's diet from infancy by introducing it into complementary foods. Diabetics should be careful. There are few contraindications to the use of apples, they are associated with individual intolerance to the product, exacerbation of stomach and intestinal ulcers.
Cherry apple fruits can be eaten fresh, squeezed juice, prepared compotes, fruit drinks, jelly, used in the preparation of confectionery and hot dishes, canned for long-term storage.
For the cherry apple tree, you should choose a well-lit sunny area with fertile soil and the absence of the possibility of stagnation of melt or rain water. The tree develops well and bears fruit on chernozems, sandy loams and loams with a low level of acidity. The site should be well protected from winds where snow is not blown out to make it easier for the tree to winter.
Preparing a land plot for disembarkation
In the fall, the site is dug up, weeds are removed. Sand, sawdust, vegetable humus or compost are added to dense, heavy soil. Light sandy soils are made heavier by the introduction of clay, peat, rotted manure and ash.
When planting apple trees of the Vishnevoe variety, the distance between plants in a row should be at least 3.5 meters and between rows - about 4.5 meters. Columnar seedlings are planted according to the scheme 1 x 1 meter. If the distance is not observed, it is possible that the tree will lack nutrients and sunlight, which will lead to a deterioration in the quality and volume of the crop, a decrease in immunity and a greater susceptibility to diseases.
Preparing the soil
To enrich the soil, 30 kg of fertile soil, peat and rotted manure should be added directly into the pit. It will also be good to add a pound of wood ash, 125 g of potassium sulfate and 400 g of superphosphate.
Landing pit dimensions
The health of the plant depends on the preparation of the planting pit; it should be a nutritional complex for the seedling. Its depth and diameter should be 70 cm. If the groundwater lies above 1.5 meters from the surface, it is necessary to make an elevation, and only then dig a hole.
Selection of seedlings
The seedlings should be purchased from reputable growers. 1-2-year-old specimens take root best. When choosing a young apple tree for planting, you should examine it. The roots must be intact, free of build-ups, elastic and not brittle. The plant should be free from damage and leaves, under the bark have a green color.
When to land
It is best to plant apple trees in early spring or mid-autumn. In the spring, you should wait for the time when the danger of frost has passed, but you should not delay, the buds on the seedling should not bloom. If you are late with the spring planting, the young tree will hurt a lot and suffer from sunburn. In autumn, planting an apple tree is recommended in mid-October, 2 weeks before frost... Seedlings with a closed root system can be placed in the ground from April to October - they will easily take root. The roots should not be cut off.
- A hole should be dug in a place prepared in advance; it is recommended to lay a drainage layer of small stones or broken bricks on the bottom.
- Fill it up to half with fertile soil and fertilizers.
- Fasten the support for the tree slightly to the side of the middle.
- Place the apple tree seedling in a hole so that the root collar rises above the soil level, cover it with earth and tie it to a support.
- Water the plant abundantly.
The technology of growing the Cherry apple tree is aimed at ensuring a high yield. The best result is achieved through plant care, soil enrichment, and pest control.
Cut and shape the crown
Apple pruning aims to create a compact crown. The central trunk should prevail in strength over the rest of the branches. If a skeletal branch begins to grow along with the central conductor, it must be shortened to 2-3 buds. With the help of pruning, they regulate the direction of growth of the branches of the apple tree, thinning ensures sufficient supply of light to all parts of the crown. This event should be carried out regularly, at least once a year. The branches should be deleted:
- sick, broken, frostbitten, severely affected by pests;
- growing vertically or at an acute angle to the trunk;
- criss-crossing, growing down and directed towards the trunk;
- the strong upper branches of the apple tree are shortened, leaving 2-4 buds;
- wolf shoots, shoots at the trunk and from the roots.
In spring, the apple tree blooms profusely and sets fruit. To improve the quality of the future harvest, the inflorescences are thinned out, leaving 2-3 flowers each. Weak fruit twigs that are in the shade are also removed. After the formation of ovaries, thinning is repeated, removing damaged, weak, deformed, shaded. In the spring, it is recommended to whitewash the apple tree trunks, which will help protect the bark from overheating in the summer.
Apple trees need to be watered 4 times during the summer - abundantly and at a certain moment:
- before budding;
- 2-3 weeks after flowering;
- 2-3 weeks before harvest;
- when preparing an apple tree for winter, in October.
A popular omen claims that as many buckets of water should be poured into the roots of an apple tree, how old it is.
The apple tree is susceptible to infection by viruses and fungi. The most common are powdery mildew, scab, rot, cytosporosis, bacteriosis. Thinning of the crown, drainage and loosening of the soil, timely removal of the affected parts of the plant contributes to the prevention of diseases.
It is recommended to spray the apple tree with fungicides, antibacterial compounds, copper sulfate, Bordeaux mixture 3-4 times during the growing season. Water solutions of mineral fertilizers help well in the fight against fungi - 15% potassium salt, 10% ammonium nitrate, 10% ammonium sulfate, which are sprayed on trees.
Insecticides are effective against insects - "Aktara", "Karate", "Confidor", "Arrivo". The processing of the apple tree is carried out repeatedly - during the swelling of the buds, after flowering, during the ripening of the fruits. From folk remedies, they use decoctions of elderberry, calendula, tobacco, soap solution.
Poison treatments should be discontinued one month before harvest.
For the good development of the Vishnevoe apple tree and increase the yield, the soil in the near-trunk circle is regularly loosened and weeds are removed. Top dressing with complex mineral fertilizers should be started from the second year, taking into account the age and the fertilized area. Also, as a top dressing, slurry, bird droppings, peat faecal or plant compost are introduced into the roots of the apple tree.
During the ripening of the fruits of the Cherry apple tree, you need to take care of the safety of the branches, which can break under load. Those that are located at an acute angle to the trunk are especially susceptible to this. This problem is solved by the installation of props or a tie to a wire ring fixed to the stem.
During the fruiting period of the Vishneva variety, it is recommended to plant peas, mustard, alfalfa in the aisles, which will absorb excess moisture, not allowing the apple tree to outgrow, subsequently the green mass can be mowed and embedded in the ground. In August, it is useful to cover the trunks with a mixture of 4 parts clay, 1 part mullein and 1 part ash, diluted to the consistency of liquid sour cream. You can add 0.5 cups of carbamide and 3 tablets of microelements to the composition.
Fruits from the Cherry apple tree are harvested upon reaching removable maturity, when they acquire the color characteristic of the variety and cease to gain weight. If fruits are not removed from the tree in time, they will soon begin to fall to the ground.
Remove apples from a tree in accordance with the basic rules:
- the best time is early morning, after cooling the fruits at night;
- move from the lower branches of the apple tree to the upper ones;
- act carefully, avoiding damage to the fruit when removed from the branch and placed in a container;
- you cannot harvest during the rain or immediately after watering - the apples must be dry;
- after collecting them, they need to be cooled to +4 ˚С.
Storage and transportation
Apples can be transported by any type of transport, where protection from temperatures below 0 ˚С and atmospheric precipitation is provided.
Fruits of the Vishnevoe variety are stored for up to 5 months, subject to the mandatory conditions:
- The fruits must be picked at the stage of technical ripeness. Unripe and overripe apples are poorly stored, the pulp quickly darkens.
- Watering and fertilizing should be stopped 2-3 weeks before picking.
- Immediately after harvesting, the fruits must be cooled to +4 ˚С.
- Apples wrapped in oiled tissue paper are stored for a long time.
- The optimum storage temperature is + 2… + 4 ˚С. When stored without special refrigeration, the keeping quality of the fruit is halved.
Features of growing in the regions
When choosing a variety of cherry apple trees, you should find out whether it is suitable for growing in this region. The plant is characterized by low resistance to frost, planting in cold regions - in Siberia, in the Urals - will not bring the desired results, the tree may even die.
The temperate continental climate of the Moscow region as a whole allows growing the Vishnevoe apple tree. But the plant should be protected from the piercing cold winds in winter and spring frosts that damage the flowers. Trees should be covered.
An early winter, frost-resistant apple variety Vishneva grows best in the southern regions of central Russia. With proper care and measures aimed at protecting the plant from adverse natural phenomena, it is possible to grow it throughout the territory of the Middle Belt and obtain a good harvest.